History of Education Technology


There is no written evidence that can tell us exactly who coined the term educational technology. Different educators, scientists and philosophers have proposed different definitions of educational technology at different time intervals. Education technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices and organization, borrowing technology from different fields of science depending on the need and need of education to implement, evaluate and manage solutions to educational problems. in all aspects of human learning.

Education technology has broadly gone through five stages.

The first stage of educational technology involves the use of tools such as graphs, maps, symbols, models, specimens, and concrete materials. The term educational technology has been used as a synonym for audiovisual aids.

The second phase of educational technology is associated with the ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction and adoption of advanced hardware and software. The use of various audiovisual aids such as projector, magic lanterns, tape recorder, radio and television revolutionized the educational scenario. Consequently, the concept of educational technology was conceived in terms of these advanced tools and equipment for the effective presentation of instructional materials.

The third stage of educational technology is linked to the development of mass media which in turn led to the ‘communication revolution’ for educational purposes. Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) used in education since the 1950s also became popular during this time.

The fourth phase of educational technology can be recognized by the individualized instruction process. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction brought a new dimension to educational technology. A self-learning system was created based on self-instruction material and learning machines.

The latest concept of education technology is influenced by the concept of systems engineering or systems approach which focuses on language labs, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in education. Education technology is, in her view, a systematic way of designing, implementing and evaluating the total teaching and learning process in terms of specific research goals.

Educational technology during the Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age
Educational technology, despite the uncertainty about the origin of the term, dates back to the periodization of the three-age system of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age.

During the Stone Age, the ignition of fire by rubbing stones, the manufacture of various weapons and utensils handmade from stones, and the practice of clothing were some of the most important simple technological developments. A fraction of the Stone Age people developed ocean-going canoe boat technology to migrate from one place to another across the ocean, developing their first informal education in knowledge of ocean currents, climatic conditions, the practice of navigation, astronavigation and the stars. . maps During the last period of the Stone Age (Neolithic Period), for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks, largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered the first steps in mining technology. Polished axes were so effective that even after the appearance of bronze and iron; people used it to cut forests and grow crops.

Although the Stone Age cultures left no written record, archaeological evidence showed their change from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools preserved in various museums, cave paintings such as the Altamira cave in Spain and other prehistoric arts such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess of Laussel, France, etc. are some of the evidences in favor of their culture.

The Stone Age Neolithic Revolution resulted in the emergence of the Bronze Age with the development of agriculture, the domestication of animals and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices, the Bronze Age people further developed metal casting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the preferred materials.
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